Business models

Payment transactions

Payment transactions are increasingly digitalized. Numerous electronic payment and transfer methods are now being offered.


Crowdfunding is a financing model with which a person or enterprise raises money to implement a business idea from a large number of persons using a special internet platform.

Peer-to-peer lending/Crowdlending

In peer-to-peer lending and crowdlending, loans are arranged person-to-person (P2P) or between several lenders and an individual.

Social trading/Copy training

Social trading and copy trading are a form of investment in which investors follow or copy the trading strategy of other investors.

Robo-advisors/Automated financial advice

Using client profiles and market analyses as a basis, robo-advisors automatically prepare investment portfolios and investment strategies.


Cryptocurrencies are private, purely virtual currencies that are not subject to any control authority. In technological terms, cryptocurrencies – such as the well-known bitcoin – are usually implemented using a blockchain.

As of now, neither the production nor the use of virtual currencies as means of payment are subject to any licensing requirement governed by specialized legislation. In individual cases, however, there may be a licensing requirement depending on the specific design of the business model.

Short-term and niche insurance

The insurance industry increasingly is offering time-limited or event-related, individualized insurance policies that can be concluded using mobile technologies.

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